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Impacts of Climate Change On National Income



Impacts of Climate Change On National Income

Impacts of Climate Change On National Income
Impacts of Climate Change On National Income

Climate change has cost the global economy a lot of money running into trillions of dollars, but a study that analyzed the economic consequences of heatwaves worldwide over a 20-year period revealed that low-income countries in tropical regions have borne the brunt of these losses. This is because these countries have inadequate resources to adapt to the changing climate and combat the effects of heat waves. These effects include extreme weather events, crop failure, and water shortages. As a result, the costs associated with these effects have been disproportionately higher for these countries.

How does Climate Change Affect National Income?

Climate change affects many things. It causes extreme weather events that can disrupt the normal functioning of a country’s economy. It leads to rising sea levels, drought, and other natural disasters that can damage infrastructure and cause economic losses. Additionally, climate change can lead to changes in the availability of certain resources, such as water and food. This can have a serious impact on the stability of countries and their economies. This is because climate change can cause changes in temperature, precipitation, and other weather patterns, which can have a negative effect on crop yield and water resources.

Other impacts of climate change are:

  1. Decreased Economic Growth:

As temperatures rise, crops and livestock suffer from drought, flooding, and extreme weather. This leads to decreased food production and decreased economic growth, leading to an overall lower national income.

  1. Infrastructural Damage:

As a result of climate change, we will see more extreme weather events, droughts, and other events that affect Agricultural output, the cost of energy, and other aspects of the economy. These extreme weather events also damage infrastructure. As a result, businesses will be forced to spend more to repair the damage or to make their infrastructure more resilient to future weather events thereby increasing Insurance costs and other related expenses which invariably reduce a country’s national income.

  1. Lower Tourism:

Lower tourism is experienced as people may opt to go to less extreme climates.

  1. More Frequent Health Problems:

Increased temperature increases health costs due to heat-related illnesses, and incidence of natural disasters. It also produces casualties which reduces the number of workers available to work and lowers productivity.

Climate Change Forecast on GDP by 2050

It has been established that climate change has a negative impact on national income. However, this impact is projected to be even more. The Swiss Re Institute warns that by 2050, the global economy could lose 10% of its total economic value due to climate change. It also warns that this figure could rise significantly to 18% of gross domestic product (GDP) by mid-century if no action is taken and temperatures rise by 3.2°C as a result of the research they carried out.

The Climate Economics Index stress tests performed by The Swiss Re Institute on how global warming will affect 48 countries that represent 90% of the earth’s economy and climate resilience rank, indicate that climate change will negatively affect Asian economies the most, with a 5.5% hit to GDP in the best case scenario and a 26.5% hit in a severe scenario.

Nevertheless, differences exist depending on the region. Advanced Asian economies are expected to lose 3.3% of GDP and 15.4% in a severe scenario if temperatures drop below 2°C. ASEAN countries are expected to lose 4.2% and 37.4% of GDP as temperatures drop.

As for the US, Canada, and the UK, they are at risk of losing 10% while China is forecast to lose nearly 24% of its GDP in a severe scenario and 11% for Europe. As for the Middle East and Africa, they would see a drop of 4.7% if temperature rises stayed below 2°C.

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Nigerian Company MMNL to invest $50 Million to scale up its Tubular Batteries Production to 100,000 with backward integration in Next 5 years



Metal Manufacturing Nigeria Limited (MMNL); also ventures into multiple business verticals in backward & forward integration

Metal Manufacturing Nigeria Limited (MMNL); also ventures into multiple business verticals in backward & forward integration and into the Mining segment to stay ahead of its competitors

Metal Manufacturing Nigeria Limited (MMNL); also ventures into multiple business verticals in backward & forward integration

To cater to the rapidly growing demand of Nigeria’s energy sector; Metal Manufacturing Nigeria Limited (MMNL), Nigeria’s largest tubular battery company is aiming to double its expansion capacity to 60,000 pcs per Month in the next financial year. The company is planning to invest around $50 million in capacity expansion, new greenfield projects in the energy backup segment, R&D, Mining & Beneficiation, Plastic container and carton manufacturing units along with brand building and channel partner engagement to accelerate its ambitious growth target. 


Being the First Company to produce the Tubular Batteries in Nigeria; MMNL have had its fair share of challenges & hurdles. Over the past 5 years, MMNL has conquered several obstacles including a lack of skilled manpower, a duopoly of supply chain vendors, hurdle of sourcing raw materials, unstable power supply, exorbitant hike in electricity tariff & gasoline price and machinery and scarcity of spare parts in the region. Despite of providing thousands of employments of opportunity; battery manufacturing sector is struggling for survival and desperately in need of government policy support such as raising import duty of foreign importers and export duty for raw materials.

Metal Manufacturing Nigeria Limited (MMNL); also ventures into multiple business verticals in backward

These problems would often demoralize and demotivate any company in tubular battery manufacturing sector and make it unviable for any business to operate in such a situation. Despite their 14 years of manufacturing experience in Nigeria, it found itself in a despondent situation which has led the company to explore other verticals to optimize the supply chain cycle. MMNL has taken several initiatives to address the stated challenges. For example, to address the issue of lack of skilled manpower, the company has conducted hundreds of technical training sessions to locals to enhance & upgrade their skill set and it is continuing to invest in manpower training. Similarly to ensure a steady supply of raw materials, the company has ventured into the mining business, beneficiation plant and other business verticals like plastic container & carton manufacturing. The company has also launched its dedicated service centre to resolve customer issues.


“Despite several challenges; the company has achieved stable production of 30,000 units per Month by 2024. MMNL is proud of the fact that it is the first & only Made-in-Nigeria inverter battery company which dominates over 35% to 40% of market share. It means every 5 batteries sold in Nigeria; 2 batteries are from MMNL”, said Mr. Amit Kumar, CEO of Metal Manufacturing Nigeria Limited. “As an Industry leader; company is continuously striving to delight the customer with quality and innovation in the product and making significant contributions in local employment opportunity as well as saving foreign exchange” 

Metal Manufacturing Nigeria Limited (MMNL); also ventures into multiple business verticals in backward & forward integration and into the Mining segment to stay ahead of its competitors

MMNL is bound to focus on completing its end-to-end supply chain cycle with a backward and forward integration expansion to proliferate its growth plan and to survive in the highly volatile environment. MMNL has already invested $25 million in Battery production, lead & Oxide manufacturing plant in Shagamu, Ogun state. MMNL’s current production capacity is 30,000 units of inverter batteries. Company is all set to boost its battery production capacity to 60,000 at the start of the new financial year and over 100,000 production capacity by opening a new battery greenfield production plant by 2027-2028 along with backward integration including lead-zinc ore mining and beneficiation. 


To make the brand available and accessible for the end customers across Nigeria, MMNL is also expanding geographically across the country, forging multi-channel partnerships, executing its retail strategy and to make use of eCommerce & digital channels.


Being an Industry leader with 14 years of manufacturing experience in Nigeria; MMNL has certainly created a high entry barrier for both existing and new players which are considering to start their tubular battery manufacturing operation. Metal Manufacturing Nigeria Limited is a shining example of how a true leader can sail through turbulence of political, economical, social & technological hurdles.


About Metal Manufacturing Nigeria Limited (MMNL)

Metal Manufacturing Nigeria Limited (MMNL) is the largest tubular battery manufacturing company

Metal Manufacturing Nigeria Limited (MMNL) is the largest tubular battery manufacturing company.  MMNL is the most trusted and ‘Proudly Made in Nigeria’ brand with over 14 years of industry experience. Recently; MMNL won 3 awards in a row 1) ECOWAS Inverter Battery Company of the Year 2) ECOWAS Inverter Battery Manufacturing Company of the year and 3) ECOWAS Renewable Company of the year. MMNL provides over 1000 direct and indirect local employment opportunities.

The Company also got pioneer status accreditation from Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission (NIPC). Currently MMNL is present across 6 major locations along with a strong network of channel partners consisting 3000+ Installers, 1000+ Dealers and 100+ Distributors and over a half million of satisfied & happy customers.

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Real Estate Crowdfunding: Nigeria New Frontier For Investment



The Current State of Real Estate Crowdfunding In Nigeria

Real Estate Crowdfunding: Nigeria New Frontier For Investment

In Nigeria, real estate crowdfunding has become a potent and cutting-edge investment option, allowing anyone to participate in real estate projects without requiring substantial sums of money or in-depth industry experience. This alternative investing strategy has gained popularity recently due to the growth of internet platforms, making it possible for more Nigerians to take part in the booming real estate industry. This article will explore the idea of real estate crowdfunding, including its advantages, possible drawbacks, and the situation of this type of investing in Nigeria right now: “Real Estate Crowdfunding: Nigeria New Frontier For Investment.”

Understanding Real Estate Crowdfunding

Through the use of internet platforms, a group of people pooling their financial resources to invest in properties or real estate development projects is known as real estate crowdfunding. Investors may make modest contributions to of funds and get paid back proportionately depending on how well the investment performs. By enabling Nigerians from a variety of backgrounds to engage in real estate investing, which was previously only accessible to wealthy individuals and institutional investors, this strategy promotes inclusivity.

This is one of the more recent ways that private investors can get involved in the real estate industry. In order to finance real estate projects like commercial buildings, residential developments, and real estate loans, money from several investors is combined.

“The following are some essentials about real estate crowdfunding to be aware of:

  1. Accessibility: Individual investors can now participate in projects that they might not have previously been able to through real estate crowdfunding platforms. This can apply to expensive commercial real estate or substantial home construction projects.
  2. Diversification: By participating in a range of projects with various risk profiles and possible rewards, real estate crowdfunding enables investors to diversify their real estate portfolios.
  3. Potential For Return: Rental revenue, property appreciation, and interest payments on real estate loans are all possible avenues for investors to realize a profit. It’s crucial to remember that there are risks associated with real estate crowdfunding investments, and profits cannot be guaranteed.
  4. Platform Possibilities: There are several platforms for real estate crowdfunding out there, and each has its own alternatives for investments, costs, and procedures for conducting due diligence. Before choosing where to invest, investors should investigate and contrast various platforms.
  5. Regulation: The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has established rules pertaining to real estate crowdfunding in the the US. These rules are in place to safeguard investors and guarantee that the offerings are lawful and transparent.
  6. Risks: Investing in real estate through crowdfunding carries a number of risks, such as the chance of property value volatility, project delays, and total investment loss. Prior to making an investment in any real estate crowdfunding project, investors should thoroughly consider the risks and perform due diligence.

Real Estate Crowdfunding Nigeria New Frontier For Investment

Benefits of Real Estate Crowdfunding In Nigeria

  1. Access To Investment Options: Individual investors may not have been able to access a variety of real estate investment options through traditional channels, but real estate crowdfunding gives them that opportunity. Purchasing commercial real estate is one way to do this. residential neighborhoods as well as other real estate initiatives.
  2. Diversification: By taking part in a variety of crowdfunding projects that span various property kinds, geographies, and risk profiles, investors can diversify their real estate portfolios. This diversification may improve profits and aid in distributing risk.
  3. Lower Entry Barrier: Individual investors who do not have the sizeable amount necessary to engage directly in real estate properties may find that real estate crowdfunding in Nigeria lowers the entry barrier. Investors with lesser investment amounts can engage in real estate projects through crowdfunding.
  4. Transparency and Due Diligence: In order to give investors clear information about the investment options, crowdfunding platforms frequently perform extensive due diligence on prospective real estate projects. This can assist investors in making well-informed choices regarding the allocation of their their money.
  5. Potential for Returns: Investors in real estate crowdfunding projects may see returns in the form of real estate loan interest payments, rental income, or property appreciation.
  6. Assistance for Developers: Crowdfunding for real estate projects offers developers a another way to raise money for their initiatives. Instead of using standard financing techniques, developers might be able to get funding more rapidly and effectively by tapping funds from a pool of individual investors.

Challenges of Real Estate Crowdfunding In Nigeria

Nigerian real estate crowdfunding suffers a number of difficulties, such as:

  1. Regulatory Environment: There may be ambiguities about the legal and regulatory requirements for real estate crowdfunding platforms and projects because Nigeria’s crowdfunding regulations are still developing. This can make it difficult for developers and investors to navigate the regulatory environment and make sure that all applicable laws and regulations are being followed.
  2. Investor Protection: Real estate crowdfunding raises concerns about investor protection in a developing market such as Nigeria. Clear laws and procedures protecting investors can be lacking, and there might also be dangers with regard to accountability, transparency, and governance on crowdfunding sites.
  3. Education and Market Awareness: A lot of prospective developers and investors might not know much about real estate crowdfunding as an investment option. In order to encourage greater participation and well-informed decision-making, there is a need for greater knowledge and instruction regarding the advantages, dangers, and workings of real estate crowdfunding.
  4. Availability of Reliable Data: Investment decisions in real estate depend on trustworthy facts and data on the market. It could be difficult for developers and investors in Nigeria to obtain precise and complete real estate market data, which could hinder their capacity to perform careful risk assessments and due diligence.
  5. reputation and Trust: The success of real estate crowdfunding initiatives and platforms depends on reputation and trust. In the still-developing crowdfunding industry, building credibility and trust with investors, developers, and other stakeholders can be difficult because of worries about governance, transparency, and the performance history of crowdfunding platforms and projects.
  6. Property Valuation and Liquidity: The capacity to exit investments, the illiquidity of real estate investments, and property valuation are potential issues for Nigerian real estate crowdfunding. Accurately valuing properties and establishing procedures It can be difficult for investors to sell their holdings in a developing real estate crowdfunding market.

The Current State of Real Estate Crowdfunding In Nigeria

The Current State of Real Estate Crowdfunding In Nigeria

The increasing number of platforms that facilitate crowdfunding campaigns has led to a rise in the popularity of real estate crowdfunding in Nigeria. Nigerian real estate crowdfunding is still relatively new, but it is growing in popularity. In recent years, a number of real estate crowdfunding platforms have surfaced, providing investors with the chance to engage in real estate investment projects via crowdsourcing. By serving as middlemen, these platforms link real estate developers and investors. In Nigeria, a few well-known platforms for real estate crowdfunding are Nigerian Property Crowd, Fundall, and Realty Africa.

Nigerian real estate crowdfunding as it stands today is defined by:

  1. Early Stage Development: With only a handful of platforms and a constrained selection of investment options, real estate crowdfunding is still in its infancy in Nigeria. Nonetheless, using crowdsourcing as a substitute for traditional real estate finance is gaining traction among developers and investors alike.
  2. Regulatory Evolution: In Nigeria, the laws governing crowdfunding, particularly those related to real estate, are changing. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has been working hard to create legal frameworks that will control crowdfunding operations. This should give investors and crowdfunding platforms more control and clarity.
  3. Raising Awareness and Participation: Nigerian investors are becoming more aware of real estate crowdfunding as a potential avenue for investment, as well as a increasing demand from developers looking for different ways to raise money. As more people become aware of the possible advantages of real estate crowdfunding, more people will probably enter the market.
  4. Technology Adoption: To make investing transactions easier, expedite due diligence procedures, and give investors a more convenient experience, Nigerian real estate crowdfunding platforms are progressively utilizing technology. Participants are benefiting from increased accessibility and convenience thanks to this technological innovation.
  5. Prospects for Investment: Nigerian real estate crowdfunding provides a variety of investment options, such as houses with mixed business and residential uses. It is possible for investors to spread their investment risk across multiple asset classes by taking part in a variety of real estate projects.
  6. Risk and Difficulties: Although real estate crowdfunding is becoming more popular, there are still hazards and difficulties, such as worries regarding liquidity, transparency, investment safety, and property valuation. In order to establish confidence and trust among participants, it will be imperative to tackle these difficulties as the market progresses.


Through real estate crowdfunding, Nigerian investors of all income levels can now take part in real estate projects and profit from their expansion, adding a new dimension to the country’s financial environment. The industry has the potential to democratize access to real estate assets, even though it is still in its early stages and has obstacles with regulation and due diligence. Real estate crowdfunding is anticipated to grow in Nigeria as the market develops and legal frameworks become more stable, providing new chances for developers and investors to prosper in the ever-changing real estate industry.


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The Legal and Regulatory Framework for Real Estate Investment




The Legal and Regulatory Framework for Real Estate Investment

Nigeria’s growing population, urbanization, and rising demand for residential and commercial real estate have made real estate investment there an alluring prospect. However, it’s crucial to comprehend the legal and regulatory environment controlling the real estate industry in Nigeria before making any investments. The goal of this article is to present a thorough examination of Nigeria’s real estate investment laws and regulations: “The Legal and Regulatory Framework for Real Estate Investment.”

The Meaning of Real Estate and Real Estate Investment

Real Property

A tangible property made up of land, any buildings, and any natural resources is referred to as real estate. This include commercial properties like office buildings and retail stores, industrial properties like factories and warehouses, residential properties like homes and apartments, and vacant land. True Natural resources like water, minerals, and agriculture are often included in real estate. A tangible asset, real estate can be purchased, sold, rented, or developed for a variety of uses. A few examples of the variables that affect real estate value are location, demand, state of the economy, and property quality.

Investment in Real Estate

Buying, holding, managing, renting, or selling real estate with the intention of making a profit is known as real estate investment. There are various ways to accomplish this, including:

  • Rental Properties: To generate rental revenue, investors buy properties and lease them to tenants.
  • Property Flipping: When an investor purchases a property, they make improvements or renovations before selling it for a profit.
  • Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs): Investors can buy shares in REITs, which are companies that own, operate, or finance income-generating real estate across a range of property sectors.
  • Real Estate Development: After buying land, investors can turn it into residential or commercial properties, which they can then either rent or sell.

 Investing in real estate has various possible advantages, such as:

  • Potential for Long-Term Capital Appreciation: Historically, real estate values have tended to rise over time, offering the possibility of long-term capital appreciation.
  • Rental Income: Having rental properties might result in a reliable source of income from rentals.
  • Diversification: Using real estate in an investing portfolio as a technique for diversification may lower total risk.
  • Tax Benefits: Investors in real estate may be able to take advantage of a number of tax breaks, including 1031 exchanges, mortgage interest deductions, and depreciation deductions.

Nonetheless, investing in real estate includes risks and difficulties such as changes in the real estate market, complicated property management, difficulties with funding and liquidity, and legal and regulatory issues.

When approaching real estate investing with careful consideration of market conditions, financing choices, and risk management, it can be a feasible strategy for wealth development, income generation, and portfolio diversification. A comprehensive understanding of market trends, property value, and property management techniques is frequently necessary for successful real estate investment.

Laws Guiding Real Estate Investment in Nigeria

Nigerian real estate is subject to a number of laws, rules, and government organizations. The following are some of the main legal frameworks that govern real estate investment in Nigeria:

  • Land Use Act: A key component of legislation governing land ownership and use is the Land Use Act of 1978. and apply within Nigeria. It outlines the processes for obtaining and transferring land rights and gives the governor of each state the authority to oversee and administer all urban land within that jurisdiction. The Act also governs the issuance of Certificates of Occupancy (C of O) and the rights of occupancy, as well as the acquisition of land for real estate development.
  • Nigerian Urban and Regional Planning Law: Under this law, planning-related activities in Nigeria are governed. It offers guidelines pertaining to development permits, zoning, construction codes, and land use. Real estate investment projects must adhere to local and regional planning regulations in order to guarantee that the appropriate permits are secured for development and land usage.
  • Land Registration Laws: Land registration is a requirement in Nigeria. is regulated by a number of regulations, such as the Land Registration Act and the Land Instruments Registration Law. These laws provide a framework for creating and defending property rights by regulating the registration of land titles, interests, and transactions. For real estate investors to safeguard their ownership claims and safeguard their real estate holdings, proper land registration is essential.
  • Property And Conveyancing Rules: In Nigeria, these rules control who owns, transfers, and conveys property. They include instructions for buying, selling, and transferring real estate, as well as the legal prerequisites for carrying out real estate transactions and registering real estate conveyances.
  • Tenancy Laws: Rental agreements and landlord-tenant relations are governed by tenancy laws in Nigeria. They outline the responsibilities and rights of both landlords and tenants, the processes for reviewing rent, and procedures for resolving tenancy agreement problems.
  • Regulatory Agencies: The Nigerian real estate industry is governed by a number of regulatory bodies, which include the Federal Housing Authority, the Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission (NIPC), the Nigerian Urban and Regional Planning Commission, the Federal Ministry of Power, Works and Housing, and the Real Estate Developers Association of Nigeria (REDAN). These organizations offer industry standards, license requirements, and regulatory rules for building, investing, and developing real estate.

To guarantee compliance and reduce the risks connected with real estate investments, it is crucial for Nigerian real estate investors to become knowledgeable about these rules and regulations, consult with legal counsel, and interact with the appropriate regulatory bodies. Furthermore, regional or state-specific cultures and practices may have an impact on real estate. investment, therefore careful research and local knowledge are necessary for investment success in Nigeria’s real estate market.

Regulatory Framework For Real Estate In Investment in Nigeria

  • The Nigerian Constitution and Land Tenure System: The legal basis for land tenure and ownership in the nation is provided by the Constitution. It acknowledges that land is owned by the government and that people and businesses can use and occupy it under different types of tenures, such certificates of occupancy or leaseholds. Real estate investors must be aware of the land tenure laws that are in effect in a certain area.
  • Land Ownership and Acquisition: Under the Land Use Act of 1978, the state governors of each of Nigeria’s states are the legal owners of all land. Investors need to understand the procedure for land acquisition, which frequently entails buying land from private sellers or local governments or obtaining a Certificate of Occupancy (C of O) from the state government. Purchasing land for real estate investment requires careful consideration and appropriate legal papers.
  • Titles and Registration: In order to ensure the security of real estate investments in Nigeria, it is essential to get correct legal titles and register property. The procedure entails carrying out a title search, confirming legitimacy, and transferring ownership by signing formal documents like conveyance or assignment deeds. Investors who want to protect their investment and make sure that registration criteria are met should collaborate with licensed legal experts.
  • Approvals for Real Estate Development: Before starting any real estate development projects in Nigeria, investors need to get the required permissions and approvals. This comprises obtaining building approvals, environmental impact assessments, and development permits from the appropriate local government agencies and regulatory organizations. Fines, demolition orders, or delays in projects are possible outcomes of noncompliance.
  • Real Estate Investment Vehicles: Real estate investors in Nigeria have access to a variety of investment vehicles, such as joint ventures, real estate development firms, and real estate investment trusts (REITs). Making wise investment selections requires having a thorough understanding of the regulatory requirements, tax ramifications, and legal frameworks of various investment vehicles.
  • Lease Agreements And Tenancy Rules: Knowledge of tenancy rules and regulations is essential for investors who are involved in leasing or renting. For example, requirements on notice periods, eviction procedures, rent payment, and lease agreements are provided under the Lagos lease Law of 2011. Respecting these laws helps keep the landlord-tenant relationship positive by defending the rights of both parties.
  • Taxes and Real Estate Investment: In Nigeria, real estate investments are liable to a number of tax duties, such as stamp duties, value-added tax (VAT), capital gains tax, and property taxes. In addition to ensuring compliance, knowing the tax laws and consulting with tax experts can assist investors optimize profits while lowering their tax obligations.
  • Regulatory Agencies and Associations: The real estate industry in Nigeria is governed by a number of government agencies and associations. These include State Town Planning Agencies, the Federal Housing Authority, the Federal Ministry of Works and Housing, and regulatory organizations like the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers (NIESV) and the Real Estate Developers Association of Nigeria (REDAN). Getting acquainted with These groups and their functions can guarantee industry standards are followed and offer insightful information about the sector.


Analyzing the legal and regulatory framework for real estate investment in Nigeria is essential for any investor looking to capitalize on the opportunities in the growing real estate sector. By understanding the constitution, land tenure system, acquisition processes, development approvals, investment structures, tenancy laws, taxation, and relevant regulatory bodies, investors can make informed decisions, mitigate risks, and navigate the legal landscape successfully. Seeking legal advice from professionals experienced in Nigerian real estate law is highly recommended to ensure compliance and protect investments in this dynamic sector. [invest]

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