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Challenges In The Banking Sector




Challenges In The Banking Sector

A sound financial and banking system is essential for every nation to grow economically. Banking in Nigeria has substantial difficulties that have prevented the government from having a secure financial system. The banking industry in Nigeria has, in 2022, faced challenges of higher effective tax rates, historically low-interest rates, and competition from telcos: Challenges In The Banking Sector.

Disruptive technology, growing competition from fintech, changing business models, mounting pressure from regulations and compliance requirements, and the banking industry itself are all contributing to the big transition that is taking place in banks in Nigeria.

The emergence of fintech or non-bank companies is changing the competitive landscape of the financial services industry and forcing incumbent institutions to reassess how they conduct business. Regulations and compliance requirements are becoming more stringent as the frequency of data breaches and privacy concerns rise. As if that weren’t enough, changing consumer needs include a need for personalized service available around-the-clock.

The same technology that has produced this disruption can remedy these and other problems in the banking business. Still, it hasn’t always been simple to move from old-fashioned methods to cutting-edge ones. Therefore, if banks and credit unions want to survive and grow in the current environment, they must embrace digital change.


8 Challenges Of the Banking Industry

Adoption Of New Technology

Implementing new technologies is currently one of the biggest challenges of banking in Africa. Larger firms struggle to embrace new procedures and technologies due to legacy solutions and antiquated business processes, making this issue the top challenge facing the financial sector in 2022, according to experts.

Banks are not in a rush to actively implement artificial intelligence, blockchain, or cloud computing, despite its effectiveness in other financial sectors. Customers expect banks to provide service with little involvement from consultants, according to recent studies. The independence and dependability of financial services are crucial for today’s consumers.


Innovative banking industry solutions are now available thanks to new technologies. AI chatbots are an excellent example. Additionally, several banks in more technologically advanced regions of the globe have already adopted VIP systems that feature audio and video chat.

Competition Between Banks And Fintech Companies

Fast-growing fintech firms can now compete head-to-head with established banking institutions. Web and mobile apps can disburse loans, work with cryptocurrencies, and even provide financial guidance.


Fintech startups can destroy small regional banks, but they cannot fully compete with giant international banks. Smaller banks might offer collaboration with fintech solutions as a remedy to fill in the organizational gaps.

To outperform their rivals, banks need to add more digital components to their physical locations. People will be kept interested and actively engaged through touchscreen technology, digital signatures, and video walls as they are informed about the services and updated on advancements. It has more than simply an interactive component; it also gets the interest of younger generations and eliminates the need for paper content.

Customer Expectation

Customers currently have differing opinions regarding the type of service they prefer: online and offline. Nevertheless, both types of customers seek to gain as much as possible and as early as possible.

Customer expectations, in any case, are what spark transformation. As a result, scalable strategies are necessary for financial institutions to advance.


For banks, having physical branches and ATMs in addition to an online presence is not sufficient. They must implement change at many levels, including worker training, technological upgrades, and management adjustments.

Customer retention will rise due to the creation and expansion of loyalty programs. At the same time, multi-channel marketing is necessary to draw in new clients. The banking industry must increase staff digital literacy and senior management digital skills if all these advances are to be implemented consistently and smoothly.

Virtual Customer Service

Whether a bank is physical or online, providing excellent customer service is essential. Customer service aims to quickly and amicably resolve customer issues while assisting banks in making financial savings due to efficiency and customer lifetime value. Large departments that don’t effectively use their human resources provide a significant problem to the banking sector (too many people doing too little).


Banking chatbots have already shown they can contribute to a better user experience. So what exactly is a banking chatbot, and how might it resolve problems? An automated launch-and-maintain system, simple to use and promises to decrease the number of customer service calls while increasing satisfaction, could boost customers’ perceptions of banks. Customer loyalty is increased, processing times are shortened, and administrative expenses are decreased when chatbots are integrated into customer support systems. Bots assist with locating transactions, money transfers, locking and unlocking debit cards, and many other tasks.


For obvious reasons, the banking industry is the one that fraudsters and hackers target the most. “Banks face a delicate balancing between customer experience and fraud control,” claims Casey Merolla. “Prevention practices can create friction, and a declined consumer is frequently a dissatisfied customer, but fraud incidents can lead to lost relationships.”

The annual cost of financial crime to the world economy is $2.1 trillion, which is greater than the GDPs of Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Switzerland, and Ireland. The annual cost of $83.5 billion for AML compliance. Authorities discover only 1% of the $2 trillion in yearly laundering. Security and fraud detection concerns are a major, expensive worry for the banking sector.


Predictive analytics and machine learning are excellent strategies and tools that may help banks and their clients stay safe in the digital era. These tools can analyse a company’s cybersecurity, identify network invasions, secure user authorisation, and forecast attacks.

Biometric technologies are thought to solve security and privacy concerns more. The advancement of biometric technology can aid in the fight against fraud and money laundering. Users also prefer instant authentication based on iris and fingertip scanning over remembering codes, pins, and passwords. When it comes to cyber-security, blockchain technology is also a fantastic problem solver.


One of the most disruptive and dynamic areas of banking is still payments. Global rivalry is getting more intense due to innovations raising customer expectations. The search for seamless digital payment experiences is ongoing because friction is pervasive in practically all legacy payment systems. The average monthly value of online transactions in Nigeria is about 46.6 trillion NGN, with about 2.2 billion online payment volume.

For card issuers, achieving volume-based fee increases in payments is anticipated to get harder in 2022. Card issuers may find it challenging to boost fee income due to inexpensive digital alternatives nontraditional players provide and pricey reward programs. In 2022, banks will be confronting this difficulty. Both for customers and businesses, banks will need to become quicker, more effective, and less expensive.


Simple payment methods reduce transaction costs and enable banks to expand their clientele globally, addressing a significant issue. The best approach to keep and please a customer in the financial services industry is through mobile technology. By utilising AI, big data, IoT, and blockchain, payment systems are enhancing mobile services and online products in response to new client needs and sophisticated security measures like biometric authentication.

 Operational Efficiency

Banking companies have had to find a means to provide the best user experience to their consumers to remain competitive in a market that is becoming increasingly crowded, particularly with the more widespread adoption of virtual banking. The internal challenge is to maintain the highest levels of security while maximising productivity and keeping expenses as low as possible.

Asset management and other industries are already feeling the effects of automation.


The biggest banks in the USA and Japan confirmed the use of robotic process automation (RPA) in banking processes several years ago, demonstrating how technology can increase productivity and enable big businesses to save money. Meanwhile, small banks must meet strict requirements for audits, security, data quality, and operational resilience because they work in a heavily regulated field.

RPA enables contemporary banks to satisfy these expectations while achieving significant operational efficiency. Integrating automated components into financial ecosystems has several advantages, including high returns, improved cross-selling, quicker delivery of goods and services, greater customer satisfaction, and improved short- and long-term financial health.

Regulatory Policy Framework

Pressure on banks has intensified due to policy actions to strengthen lending and stabilise the financial system to boost the production of goods and services. The Central Bank of Nigeria’s (CBN) January 2020 downward pricing changes to electronic banking costs, intended to safeguard consumer rights as more people become financially engaged, have had a detrimental impact on banks’ fees and commission income.


The CBN must be flexible in its policy to enable commercial banks and other financial institutions in Nigeria to have a respective banks’ customer engagement that is tailored to each bank in a bid to serve its customer better according to their size and strength.


Banking operation and experience are already significantly disrupted by the emergence of sophisticated technologies that fintech leverage. It is, however, essential for the banking industry to join the bandwagon of providing sustainable payment and transaction strategies through the use of smart technology.

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Rand Merchant Bank (RMB) works with World Bank in closing first to market MIGA guaranteed short-term sovereign loan



Rand Merchant Bank (RMB) works with World Bank in closing first to market MIGA guaranteed short-term sovereign loan

Through collaboration with MIGA and the Minister of Economy and Finance for Côte d’Ivoire, RMB facilitated a short-term loan to support crucial trade related initiatives

Rand Merchant Bank (RMB) (, a division of FirstRand Bank Limited, has achieved a significant milestone in Africa by partnering with the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), a member of the World Bank, to extend short-term funding support on a trade-backed facility for the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire.

Through collaboration with  MIGA and the Minister of Economy and Finance for Côte d’Ivoire, RMB facilitated a short-term loan to support crucial trade related initiatives.

Said Ben Bechet from RMB’s Trade and Working Capital, Structured Solutions team: “While RMB has a proud history of supporting sovereigns on the continent with their funding and capital markets requirements, this is a first of its kind facility for an African sovereign. This transaction will pave the way for further MIGA guaranteed short-term facilities across the continent to assist with developmental initiatives, critical projects and the importation of crucial goods such as food, fertilizer and medicines alongside other resources.”

Clarine Stenfert, Global Trade Finance Head and Head of UK for MIGA, said: “Through deep collaboration with RMB and MIGA, the teams were able to successfully structure and execute a process we hope to scale and introduce to other African countries. MIGA’s Trade Finance Guarantee Framework seeks to support sovereigns or sub-sovereigns across emerging markets with their trade financing requirements, alleviating the current liquidity constraints imposed by the current high inflationary environment and the retreat from markets by private sector players.”

MIGA provides political risk insurance guarantees to private sectors and investors in a broad range of sectors in developing  economies. MIGA promotes foreign direct investment into developing countries to support economic growth, reduce poverty, and improve people’s lives. MIGA fulfills this mandate by offering political risk insurance guarantees and credit enhancement to private sector investors and lenders.

“RMB’s strategy entails forging partnerships with insurance, guarantee and export credit agency providers to extend meaningful funding support to our clients across Africa. Collaboration with development financial institutions and multilaterals remains key to truly unlocking new opportunities to support our clients, concluded Bechet.”

Distributed by APO Group on behalf of Rand Merchant Bank.

About RMB:
Rand Merchant Bank (RMB) is a leading African corporate and investment bank (CIB) and part of the largest financial services group (by market capitalisation) in Africa – FirstRand Bank Limited (which is wholly owned by FirstRand Limited). We offer our clients innovative, value-added advisory, funding, trading, corporate banking, and principal investing solutions.
With a presence in 10 African countries, we have a significant footprint on the continent. We also have access to a network of retail banks, representative offices and branches across Africa, the UK, India and the US.

At RMB we are passionate about solving problems for our clients by asking the hard questions. We challenge accepted thinking. We analyse and seek solutions beyond the obvious. We are innovative in our thinking and turn challenges into opportunities, while delivering on Traditional values. Innovative ideas. Our ability to think differently, our collaborative spirit, our client-centric solutions and our belief that great minds don’t always have to think alike, is what sets us apart.

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About MIGA:
MIGA was created in 1988 as a member of the World Bank to promote foreign direct investment in emerging economies by helping to mitigate the risks of restrictions on currency conversion and transfer, breach of contract by governments, expropriation, and war and civil disturbance; and offering credit enhancement to private investors and lenders. Since its creation, MIGA has issued over $76 billion in guarantees across 123 developing countries, supporting more than 1,000 projects. Over the past decade, MIGA’s guarantees have generated more than 156,000 jobs in developing countries.

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Equatorial Guinea and Ghana Accede to the Establishment Agreement for Afreximbank’s Fund for Export Development in Africa (FEDA)



The Fund for Export Development in Africa (FEDA), the development impact-focused subsidiary of the African Export-Import Bank (Afreximbank) (, has announced that the Republic of Equatorial Guinea and the Republic of Ghana have recently signed the FEDA Establishment Agreement.

This important milestone is the result of several months of cooperation between Afreximbank, FEDA and government officials in Equatorial Guinea and Ghana.

As Afreximbank member states, Equatorial Guinea and Ghana have taken another step towards closer collaborations with FEDA by signing the FEDA Establishment Agreement. This milestone marks the countries’ support for Afreximbank’s efforts to extend FEDA’s impact investing objectives across the continent.

New memberships are crucial to broaden the scope of FEDA’s interventions and its mission of delivering long-term capital to African economies with a focus on industrialization, intra-African trade and value-added exports.

Professor Benedict Oramah, President of Afreximbank and Chairman of the Boards of both Afreximbank and FEDA, said: “We heartily welcome the signing of the FEDA Establishment Agreement by the Republic of Equatorial Guinea and the Republic of Ghana. The signing of the FEDA Establishment Agreement lays the groundwork for an enhanced and more effective cooperation with better access to the full range of interventions offered by Afreximbank and FEDA. This milestone builds on the solid partnership already established with both Equatorial Guinea and Ghana. The aim is to support transformative investments in these countries in the near future.”

About FEDA:
The Fund for Export Development in Africa (“FEDA”) is the impact investment subsidiary of Afreximbank set up to provide equity, quasi-equity, and debt capital to finance the multi-billion-dollar funding gap (particularly in equity) needed to transform the Trade sector in Africa. FEDA pursues a multi-sector investment strategy along the intra-African trade, value-added export development, and manufacturing value chain which includes financial services, technology, consumer and retail goods, manufacturing, transport & logistics, agribusiness, as well as ancillary trade enabling infrastructure such as industrial parks.

About Afreximbank:
African Export-Import Bank (Afreximbank) is a Pan-African multilateral financial institution mandated to finance and promote intra-and extra-African trade. For 30 years, the Bank has been deploying innovative structures to deliver financing solutions that support the transformation of the structure of Africa’s trade, accelerating industrialization and intra-regional trade, thereby boosting economic expansion in Africa. A stalwart supporter of the African Continental Free Trade Agreement (AfCFTA), Afreximbank has launched a Pan-African Payment and Settlement System (PAPSS) that was adopted by the African Union (AU) as the payment and settlement platform to underpin the implementation of the AfCFTA. Working with the AfCFTA Secretariat and the AU, the Bank is setting up a US$10 billion Adjustment Fund to support countries to effectively participate in the AfCFTA. At the end of September 2023, Afreximbank’s total assets and guarantees stood at over US$33.4 billion, and its shareholder funds amounted to US$5.8 billion. The Bank disbursed more than US$104 billion between 2016 and 2023. Afreximbank has investment grade ratings assigned by GCR (international scale) (A), Moody’s (Baa1), Japan Credit Rating Agency (JCR) (A-) and Fitch (BBB). Afreximbank has evolved into a group entity comprising the Bank, its impact fund subsidiary called the Fund for Export Development Africa (FEDA), and its insurance management subsidiary, AfrexInsure, (together, “the Group”). The Bank is headquartered in Cairo, Egypt.

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Financial Analysis: A Comprehensive Study of The Well-Being of A Country 




Financial Analysis: A Comprehensive Study of The Well-Being of A Country

Understanding the financial stability of a country requires a thorough understanding of financial analysis. In order to offer insights into the overall financial stability and overall wellness of the country, it entails evaluating a range of economic indicators, financial performance, and market movements.

In this article, we will delve into the fundamentals and importance of financial analysis in evaluating a country’s economic situation.


Ancient Beginnings:

The roots of financial analysis can be traced back thousands of years. The ancient Mesopotamians, Egyptians, and Greeks were among the pioneers of documenting financial transactions, creating basic records of assets and liabilities. These early attempts laid the groundwork for the concept of financial analysis through the study of financial statements and ledgers.

Medieval Europe:

During the Middle Ages, Europe witnessed the rise of merchant guilds and the emergence of double-entry bookkeeping. Italian mathematician and Franciscan friar, Luca Pacioli, is often credited with formalizing double-entry bookkeeping, publishing his seminal work “Summa de arithmetica, geometria, proportioni et proportionalita” in 1494. The concept of balancing debits and credits within financial records formed the basis for modern financial analysis techniques.

Industrial Revolution:

The Industrial Revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries revolutionized business and the need for financial analysis grew rapidly. As companies expanded and diversified, investors began demanding more comprehensive financial reports to assess the potential risks and returns of their investments. The birth of limited liability companies further accelerated the need for financial analysis, as shareholders sought transparency in the performance of their investments.

Modern Era:

The 20th century witnessed significant advancements in financial analysis techniques. The advent of electronic computing in the mid-1900s enabled the processing and analysis of vast amounts of financial data, leading to the development of sophisticated financial models and ratios.

The Great Depression of the 1930s laid the groundwork for modern financial analysis as regulators sought effective ways to prevent future economic crises. The establishment of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in 1934 brought about standardized reporting requirements, including the filing of audited financial statements. This increased transparency and standardized financial reporting provided analysts with a more accurate and consistent basis for their analysis.

The Rise of Quantitative Analysis:

In the latter half of the 20th century, the growth of computing power and the availability of large data sets propelled financial analysis into new territory. Quantitative analysis, utilizing statistical models and mathematical algorithms, started gaining prominence. Financial analysts began incorporating complex mathematical methods to assess investment opportunities, risk management, and portfolio optimization.

Modern Financial Tools:

With the advent of the internet and the digital age, financial analysis has become even more accessible and data-driven. Sophisticated software programs, data analytics tools, and artificial intelligence have revolutionized the way financial data is analyzed and interpreted. In recent years, technologies like machine learning have been leveraged to develop predictive models that can assess future trends and make accurate financial forecasts.


Financial analysis is the process of evaluating businesses, projects, budgets, and other finance-related transactions to determine their performance and suitability. Typically, financial analysis is used to analyze whether an entity is stable, solvent, liquid, or profitable enough to warrant a monetary investment.

Financial analysis is a fundamental tool that allows organizations and individuals to assess the past, present, and future financial health of a business or investment. Through a systematic examination and interpretation of financial statements, ratios, and other key indicators, financial analysis helps in making informed decisions, optimizing resources, and improving overall financial performance. In this article, we will delve into the meaning of financial analysis, its prominent components, and its significance across various sectors.

Financial analysis involves scrutinizing financial data to evaluate the performance and profitability of an entity. It assists in quantifying the effectiveness of financial decisions, identifying trends, predicting future outcomes, and benchmarking against industry standards. By analyzing financial statements, investors, analysts, and other stakeholders gain valuable insights into the financial position, liquidity, solvency, and operational efficiency of an organization.


  1. Gross Domestic Product (GDP): GDP is a primary indicator used to gauge the economic performance of a nation. Financial analysts analyze GDP growth rates and its components, such as consumer spending, government expenditure, investments, and net exports. This analysis helps in determining the overall strength of the economy and identifying areas of potential growth.
  2. Trade and Balance of Payments: Trade analysis focuses on a country’s imports, exports, and balance of payments. Evaluating trade patterns helps identify sectors driving the country’s economic growth, trade imbalances, and potential risks to the economy from external factors such as changes in global demand or disruptions in supply chains.
  3. Inflation and Interest Rates: Analyzing inflation rates and interest rates provides insights into the stability of a country’s economy. High inflation erodes purchasing power, while high-interest rates can impact borrowing costs, affect consumer spending, and investment behavior. Financial analysts assess the impact of inflation and interest rates on an economy’s overall competitiveness and economic growth potential.
  4. Government Debt and Fiscal Policy: Analyzing a country’s government debt levels and fiscal policy is crucial in understanding its financial sustainability. A high level of government debt may lead to increased borrowing costs, reduced investor confidence, and potential risks to economic stability. Evaluating fiscal policies helps determine whether a country is managing its finances effectively and implementing sustainable economic growth strategies.
  5. Stock Market Performance: The stock market reflects investor sentiment and provides valuable insights into a country’s economic outlook. Analysts evaluate key stock market indices, such as the country’s primary exchange, sector-specific indices, and market capitalization trends. Monitoring stock market performance allows for an understanding of investor confidence, economic growth expectations, and potential risks to the financial system.
  6. Banking Sector and Financial Institutions: A robust banking sector is essential for economic stability. Financial analysts assess the health of the banking system by evaluating indicators such as non-performing loans, capital adequacy ratios, and the overall stability and soundness of financial institutions. Understanding the well-being of financial institutions helps gauge the potential risks to the overall economy, including credit availability, liquidity, and financial contagion.
  7. Regulatory Environment and Governance: The regulatory environment and governance play a critical role in attracting investment and fostering economic growth. Financial analysts assess the effectiveness of regulatory frameworks, transparency in financial transactions, and the overall credibility and efficiency of institutions responsible for enforcing regulations. Evaluating the regulatory environment aids in understanding potential risks and opportunities for sustainable economic development.


Financial analysis plays a vital role across various sectors, serving the following purposes:

  1. Evaluating Financial Performance: By conducting a comprehensive financial analysis, companies can assess their performance, profitability, and financial stability. This, in turn, helps in identifying areas for improvement, developing strategic plans, and making sound financial decisions.
  2. Assessing Investment Viability: Investors rely on financial analysis to evaluate the profitability and risks associated with potential investments. Through detailed scrutiny of financial data, investors can determine the financial health and growth prospects of a company, aiding in making informed investment decisions.
  3. Facilitating Lending Decisions: Financial institutions utilize financial analysis to assess the creditworthiness of loan applicants. By analyzing financial statements, evaluating ratios, and assessing the risk profile, lenders can ascertain the borrower’s ability to repay loans and make sound lending decisions.
  4. Supporting Strategic Decision-Making: Financial analysis aids in strategic decision-making, such as expansion, diversification, or mergers and acquisitions. Understanding a company’s financial position and performance provides a foundation for evaluating the feasibility and potential outcomes of such decisions.


Conducting a comprehensive financial analysis provides valuable insights into the economic landscape of a country. By evaluating indicators such as GDP, trade patterns, inflation rates, government debt, stock market performance, banking sector health, and regulatory environment, financial analysts can gauge the overall financial health, identify potential risks, and recommend strategies for sustainable economic growth. Accurate and timely financial analysis acts as a compass, guiding policymakers, investors, and businesses to make informed decisions and contribute to the overall prosperity of the nation.

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